Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity by aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in rats

A B Saba, A A Oyagbemi, O I Azeez


This study was conducted to explore possible protective effect ofCnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity and haemotoxicity in experimental animal models. Thirty six rats of six per group were used in this study. Group I received 10ml/kg normal saline as control. Group II-VI rats were administered with 1.25ml/kg body weight (bwt) of carbon tetrachloride intraperitonealy. Animals in groups III, IV, V and VI were however pre-treated with aqueous extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 250, 500 and 750mg/kg body weight (bwt) respectively. Administration of CCL4 in untreated rats led to microcytic hypochromic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, increased erythrocyte fragility and stress induced leucocytosis accompanied with significant (P<0.05) increase in neutrophils and decrease (P<0.01) in lymphocyte counts. CCl4 also led to significant (P<0.05) increase in serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and phosphatase (ALP) respectively compared with control animals. Also, CCL4 produced significant (P<0.05) increase in serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine compared with normal rats. Pre-treatment withCnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract brought about significant restoration of the haematological parameters to values that were comparable to those of the control with concomitant decrease (P<0.05) in the activities of the marker of hepatic damage enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were also brought to near normal by the CA in a dose-dependent manner. From this study, we conclude that pre-exposure to Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract considerably reduced the effect of CCl4 on the blood parameters and ameliorated hepatic damage by the haloalkane


Keywords: Hepatotoxicity, Haemotoxicity, Carbon tetrachloride, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Rats

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