Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves in rats

B V Owoyele, O C Okoye, R O Dolor, O P Oloruntola, A O Soladoye

Abstract


The leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana are commonly used for the treatment of pain, fever and ulcer by traditional medical practitioners without any scientific data to evaluate the appropriateness of some of the practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine whether the ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic as well as anti-ulcer effects. The hot plate latency assay and formalin- induced paw licking models were used to evaluate analgesic effects. Animals were divided into groups comprising of five rats each. There were control (administered saline) and reference (administered indomethacin) groups. Also there were three extract groups administered 25, 50 or 100 mg/Kg body weight of extracts. Ulcer was induced using absolute ethanol followed by pylorus ligation in all animals; inflammation was induced using carrageenan while pyrexia was induced by injecting brewer’s yeast intramuscularly into the dorsal part of the abdominal cavities of the rats. Different sets of rats were used for the anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies although animal grouping for extract administration were as in analgesic studies. The results show that the extract produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05) analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The extract also significantly protected against ethanol induced ulcer. Likewise, the extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced the pyretic states of the animals. This study has therefore further provides evidences that may support the ethnomedicinal uses of the ethanolic extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves.

Keywords: Acalypha wilkesiana, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic, Anti-ulcer

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